ChatDev : Communicative Agents for Software Development

The software development industry is a domain that often relies on both consultation and intuition, characterized by intricate decision-making strategies. Furthermore, the development, maintenance, and operation of software require a disciplined and methodical approach. It’s common for software developers to base decisions on intuition rather than consultation, depending on the complexity of the problem. In an effort to enhance the efficiency of software engineering, including the effectiveness of software and reduced development costs, scientists are exploring the use of deep-learning-based frameworks to tackle various tasks within the software development process. With recent developments and advancements in the deep learning and AI sectors, developers are seeking ways to transform software development processes and practices. They are doing this by using sophisticated designs implemented at different stages of the software development process.

Today, we’re going to discuss ChatDev, a Large Language Model (LLM) based, innovative approach that aims to revolutionize the field of software development. This paradigm seeks to eliminate the need for specialized models during each phase of the development process. The ChatDev framework leverages the capabilities of LLM frameworks, utilizing natural language communication to unify and streamline key software development processes.

In this article, we will explore ChatDev, a virtual-powered company specializing in software development. ChatDev adopts the waterfall model and meticulously divides the software development process into four primary stages.

  1. Designing. 
  2. Coding. 
  3. Testing. 
  4. Documentation. 

Each of these stages deploys a team of virtual agents like code programmers or testers that collaborate with each other using dialogues that result in a seamless workflow. The chat chain works as a facilitator, and breaks down each stage of the development process into atomic subtasks, thus enabling dual roles, allowing for proposals and validation of solutions using context-aware communications that allows developers to effectively resolve the specified subtasks. 

ChatDev : AI Assisted Software Development

ChatDev’s instrumental analysis demonstrates that not only is the ChatDev framework extremely effective in completing the software development process, but it is extremely cost efficient as well as it completes the entire software development process in just under a dollar. Furthermore, the framework not only identifies, but also alleviates potential vulnerabilities, rectifies potential hallucinations, all while maintaining high efficiency, and cost-effectiveness. 

Traditionally, the software development industry is one that is built on the foundations of a disciplined, and methodical approach not only for developing the applications, but also for maintaining, and operating them. Traditionally speaking, a typical software development process is a highly intricate, complex, and time-taking meticulous process with long development cycles, as there are multiple roles involved in the development process including coordination within the organization, allocation of tasks, writing of code, testing, and finally, documentation. 

In the last few years, with the help of LLM or Large Language Models, the AI community has achieved significant milestones in the fields of computer vision, and natural language processing, and following training on “next word prediction” paradigms, Large Language Models have well demonstrated their ability to return efficient performance on a wide array of downstream tasks like machine translation, question answering, and code generation. 

Although Large Language Models can write code for the entire software, they have a major drawback : code hallucinations, which is quite similar to the hallucinations faced by natural language processing frameworks. Code hallucinations can include issues like undiscovered bugs, missing dependencies, and incomplete function implementations. There are two major causes of code hallucinations. 

  • Lack of Task Specification: When generating the software code in one single step, not defining the specific of the task confuses the LLMs as tasks in the software development process like analyzing user requirements, or selecting the preferred programming language often provide guided thinking, something that is missing from the high-level tasks handled by these LLMs. 
  • Lack of Cross Examination : Significant risks arrive when a cross examination is not performed especially during the decision making processes. 

ChatDev aims to solve these issues, and facilitate LLMs with the power to create state of the art, and effective software applications by creating a virtual-powered company for software development that establishes the waterfall model, and meticulously divides the software development process into four primary stages,

  1. Designing. 
  2. Coding. 
  3. Testing. 
  4. Documentation. 

Each of these stages deploys a team of virtual agents like code programmers or testers that collaborate with each other using dialogues that result in a seamless workflow. Furthermore, ChatDev makes use of a chat chain that works as a facilitator, and breaks down each stage of the development process into atomic subtasks, thus enabling dual roles, allowing for proposals and validation of solutions using context-aware communications that allows developers to effectively resolve the specified subtasks. The chat chain consists of several nodes where every individual node represents a specific subtask, and these two roles engage in multi-turn context-aware discussions to not only propose, but also validate the solutions. 

In this approach, the ChatDev framework first analyzes a client’s requirements, generates creative ideas, designs & implements prototype systems, identifies & addresses potential issues, creates appealing graphics, explains the debug information, and generates the user manuals. Finally, the ChatDev framework delivers the software to the user along with the source code, user manuals, and dependency environment specifications. 

ChatDev : Architecture and Working

Now that we have a brief introduction to ChatDev, let’s have a look at the architecture & working of the ChatDev framework starting with the Chat Chain. 

Chat Chain

As we have mentioned in the previous section, the ChatDev framework uses a waterfall method for software development that divides the software development process into four phases including designing, coding, testing, and documentation. Each of these phases have a unique role in the development process, and there is a need for effective communication between them, and there are potential challenges faced when identifying individuals to engage with, and determining the sequence of interactions. 

To address this issue, the ChatDev framework uses Chat Chain, a generalized architecture that breaks down each phase into a subatomic chat, with each of these phases focussing on task-oriented role playing that involves dual roles. The desired output for the chat forms a vital component for the target software, and it is achieved as a result of collaboration, and exchange of instructions between the agents participating in the development process. The chat chain paradigm for intermediate task-solving is illustrated in the image below. 

For every individual chat, an instructor first initiates the instructions, and then guides the dialogue towards the completion of the task, and in the meantime, the assistants follow the instructions laid by the instructor, provide ideal solutions, and engage in discussions about the feasibility of the solution. The instructor and the agent then engage in multi-turn dialogues until they arrive at a consensus, and they deem the task to be accomplished successfully. The chain chain provides users with a transparent view of the development process, sheds light on the path for making decisions, and offers opportunities for debugging the errors when they arise, that allows the end users to analyze & diagnose the errors, inspect intermediate outputs, and intervene in the process if deemed necessary. By incorporating a chat chain, the ChatDev framework is able to focus on each specific subtask on a granular scale that not only facilitates effective collaboration between the agents, but it also results in the quick attainment of the required outputs. 


In the design phase, the ChatDev framework requires an initial idea as an input from the human client, and there are three predefined roles in this stage. 

  1. CEO or Chief Executive Officer. 
  2. CPO or Chief Product Officer. 
  3. CTO or Chief Technical Officer. 

The chat chain then comes into play dividing the designing phase into sequential subatomic chatting tasks that includes the programming language(CTO and CEO), and the modality of the target software(CPO and CEO). The designing phase involves three key mechanisms: Role Assignment or Role Specialization, Memory Stream, and Self-Reflection. 

Role Assignment

Each agent in the Chat Dev framework is assigned a role using special messages or special prompts during the role-playing process. Unlike other conversational language models, the ChatDev framework restricts itself solely to initiating the role-playing scenarios between the agents. These prompts are used to assign roles to the agents prior to the dialogues. 

Initially, the instructor takes the responsibilities of the CEO, and engages in interactive planning whereas the responsibilities of the CPO are handled by the agent that executes tasks, and provides the required responses. The framework uses “inception prompting” for role specialization that allows the agents to fulfill their roles effectively. The assistant, and instructor prompts consist of vital details concerning the designated roles & tasks, termination criteria, communication protocols, and several constraints that aim to prevent undesirable behaviors like infinite loops, uninformative responses, and instruction redundancy. 

Memory Stream

The memory stream is a mechanism used by the ChatDev framework that maintains a comprehensive conversational record of the previous dialogue’s of an agent, and assists in the decision-making process that follows in an utterance-aware manner. The ChatDev framework uses prompts to establish the required communication protocols. For example, when the parties involved reach a consensus, an ending message that satisfies a specific formatting requirement like (<MODALITY>: Desktop Application”). To ensure compliance with the designated format, the framework continuously monitors, and finally allows the current dialogue to reach a conclusion. 

Self Reflection

Developers of the ChatDev framework have observed situations where both the parties involved had reached a mutual consensus, but the predefined communication protocols were not triggered. To tackle these issues, the ChatDev framework introduces a self-reflection mechanism that helps in the retrieval and extraction of memories. To implement the self-reflection mechanism, the ChatDev framework initiates a new & fresh chat by enlisting “pseudo self” as a new questioner. The “pseudo self” analyzes the previous dialogues & historical records, and informs the current assistant following which, it requests a summary of conclusive & action worthy information as demonstrated in the figure below. 

With the help of the self-help mechanism, the ChatDev assistant is encouraged to reflect & analyze the decisions it has proposed. 


There are three predefined roles in the coding phase namely the CTO, the programmer, and the art designer, As usual, the chat chain mechanism divides the coding phase into individual subatomic tasks like generating codes(programmer & CTO), or to devise a GUI or graphical user interface(programmer & designer). The CTO then instructs the programmer to use the markdown format to implement a software system following which the art designer proposes a user-friendly & interactive GUI that makes use of graphical icons to interact with users rather than relying on traditional text based commands. 

Code Management

The ChatDev framework uses object-oriented programming languages like Python, Java, and C++to handle complex software systems because the modularity of these programming languages enables the use of self-contained objects that not only aid in troubleshooting, but also with collaborative development, and also helps in removing redundancies by reusing the objects through the concept of inheritance. 

Thought Instructions

Traditional methods of question answering often lead to irrelevant information, or inaccuracies especially when generating code as providing naive instructions might lead to LLM hallucinations, and it might become a challenging issue. To tackle this issue, the ChatDev framework introduces the “thought instructions” mechanism that draws inspiration from chain-of-thought prompts. The “thought instructions” mechanism explicitly addresses individual problem-solving thoughts included in the instructions, similar to solving tasks in a sequential & organized manner. 


Writing an error-free code in the first attempt is challenging not only for LLMs, but also for human programmers, and rather than completely discarding the incorrect code, programmers analyze their code to identify the errors, and rectify them. The testing phase in the ChatDev framework is divided into three roles: programmer, tester, and reviewer. The testing process is further divided into two sequential subatomic tasks: Peer Review or Static Debugging (Reviewer, and Programmer), and System Testing or Dynamic Debugging (Programmer and Tester). Static debugging or Peer review analyzes the source code to identify errors whereas dynamic debugging or system testing verifies the execution of the software through various tests that are conducted using an interpreter by the programmer. Dynamic debugging focuses primarily on black-box testing to evaluate the applications. 


After the ChatDev framework is done with designing, coding, and testing phases, it employs four agents namely the CEO, CTO, CPO, and Programmer to generate the documentation for the software project. The ChatDev framework uses LLMs to leverage few-shot prompts with in-context examples to generate the documents. The CTO instructs the programmer to provide the instructions for configuration of environmental dependencies, and create a document like “dependency requirements.txt”. Simultaneously, the requirements and system design are communicated to the CPO by the CEO, to generate the user manual for the product. 


Software Statistics

To analyze the performance of the ChatDev framework, the team of developers ran a statistical analysis on the software applications generated by the framework on the basis of a few key metrics including consumed tokens, total dialogue turns, image assets, software files, version updates, and a few more, and the results are demonstrated in the table below. 

Duration Analysis

To examine ChatDev’s production time for software for different request prompts, the developers also conducted a duration analysis, and the difference in the development time for different prompts reflects the varying clarity & complexity of the tasks assigned, and the results are demonstrated in the figure below. 

Case Study

The following figure demonstrates ChatDev developing a Five in a Row or a Gomoku game. 

The leftmost figure demonstrates the basic software created by the framework without using any GUI. As it can be clearly seen, the application without any GUI offers limited interactivity, and users can play this game only though the command terminal. The next figure demonstrates a more visually appealing game created with the use of GUI, offers a better user experience, and an enhanced interactivity for an engaging gameplay environment that can be enjoyed much more by the users. The designer agent then creates additional graphics to further enhance the usability & aesthetics of the gameplay without affecting any functionality. However, if the human users are not satisfied with the image generated by the designer, they can replace the images after the ChatDev framework has completed the software. The flexibility offered by ChatDev framework to manually replace the images allows users to customize the applications as per their preferences for an enhanced interactivity & user experience without affecting the functionality of the software in any way. 

Final Thoughts

In this article, we have talked about ChatDev, an LLM or Large Language Model based innovative paradigm that aims to revolutionize the software development field by eliminating the requirement for specialized models during each phase of the development process. The ChatDev framework aims to leverage the abilities of the LLM frameworks by using natural language communication to unify & streamline key software development processes. The ChatDev framework uses the chat chain mechanism to break the software development process into sequential subatomic tasks, thus enabling granular focus, and promoting desired outputs for every subatomic task. 

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